Login

Username:
Password:
Forgot password?

Search in our Journal

for:
in:

Welcome to African Archaeology!

The Journal of African Archaeology is an international peer-reviewed periodical appearing half-yearly since 2003. It publishes original papers addressing recent research and developments in African archaeology and related disciplines. The journal's main purpose is to provide scholars and students with a new pan-African forum for discussing relevant topics on the cultural dynamics of past African societies.

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Journal contents:


Vol. 4 (1) 2006

back

J.W. Lankton, O.A. Ige & Th. Rehren

Early Primary Glass Production in Southern Nigeria

Journal of African Archaeology, Vol. 4 (1), 2006, pages 111-138, DOI 10.3213/1612-1651-10065


Abstract
Fragmentary glass-working crucibles, drawn glass beads and ritual glass objects (aje ileke) from Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria, were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The very unusual high-lime, high-alumina glass lining the crucibles matched the composition of the dark blue drawn beads and some of the blue and green glass fragments in the aje ileke. Similar crucible fragments, glass cullet and drawn glass beads were recovered during Frank Willett's excavations (1956-63) of two sites in Ile-Ife, and Claire Davison's unpublished chemical analyses from 1972 show the same high-lime, high-alumina glass from Ita Yemoo, with radiocarbon dates from the eleventh to thirteenth century CE, and Orun Oba Ado, with radiocarbon dates from the eighth to twelfth century. Such high-lime, high-alumina glass has been found only in West Africa, including Igbo-Ukwu in southern Nigeria, and is not known from Europe, the Middle East or Asia, ruling out the possibility that the glass was imported. We interpret these findings to propose the primary manufacture of high-lime, high-alumina glass in sub-Saharan Africa in the early second millennium CE, with production centred in southern Nigeria, and quite possibly in or near Ile-Ife. The results of our study, combined with those of Davison, provide the first strong evidence for early primary glass production in sub-Saharan Africa.

Résumé
Des fragments de creusets pour la fusion du verre, des perles étirées et des objets rituels de verre (aje ileke) provenant d'Ile-Ife dans le sud-ouest du Nigeria ont été analysés à l'aide d'un microscope électronique à balayage en mode EDS, d'une microsonde et de la fluorescence X. La composition du verre à l'intérieur des creusets, calcique et alumineuse, est assez peu commune. Elle est similaire à celle de perles étirées bleu foncé et de celle de certains fragments de verre bleus et verts du aje ileke. Des fragments de creusets, des blocs de verre et des perles étirées identiques ont été mis à jour lors des fouilles archéologiques (1956-63) de Frank Willett portant sur deux sites à Ile-Ife. Les analyses non-publiées de Claire Davison de 1972 montrent l'existence du même type de verre calcique et alumineux à Ita Yemoo et à Orun Oba Ado, sites respectivement datés par radiocarbone du XIe au XIIe siècles AD et du VIIIe au XIIe siècles AD. Ce verre calcique et alumineux a été trouvé seulement en Afrique de l'Ouest, y compris sur le site d'Igbo-Ukwu au sud du Nigeria. Il est totalement inconnu en Europe, au Moyen-Orient ou en Asie, ce qui élimine la possibilité que ce verre soit importé. Nous interprétons ces observations comme la preuve de l'existence d'une production de verre calcique et alumineux en Afrique sub-saharienne au début du second millénaire de notre ère, centrée dans le sud du Nigeria et assez probablement à Ile-Ife ou dans ses environs. Les résultats de notre étude, combinés avec ceux de Davison, fournissent la preuve d'une production primaire ancienne de verre en Afrique sub-saharienne.




Keywords: chemical analysis, glass, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, primary glass production, West Africa, Yoruba


© Copyright: Africa Magna Verlag 2011
debug:::select id_product, count, internal_id from caw2_cart where userID='nUrdOU6mgGY86nPStm9Gd53Xnf8PSxY8j118SOOoSfvbOI6PF2Co9ZC39OH6fY5Lqd2g72IZL9ArbRWU' and id_category='journals' order by timestamp
debug:::select id_product, count, internal_id from caw2_cart where userID='nUrdOU6mgGY86nPStm9Gd53Xnf8PSxY8j118SOOoSfvbOI6PF2Co9ZC39OH6fY5Lqd2g72IZL9ArbRWU' and id_category='pdfs' order by timestamp
debug:::select id_product, count, internal_id from caw2_cart where userID='nUrdOU6mgGY86nPStm9Gd53Xnf8PSxY8j118SOOoSfvbOI6PF2Co9ZC39OH6fY5Lqd2g72IZL9ArbRWU' and id_category='monographs' order by timestamp
debug:::select id_product, count, internal_id from caw2_cart where userID='nUrdOU6mgGY86nPStm9Gd53Xnf8PSxY8j118SOOoSfvbOI6PF2Co9ZC39OH6fY5Lqd2g72IZL9ArbRWU' and id_category='subscriptions' order by timestamp
debug:::select id_product, count, internal_id from caw2_cart where userID='nUrdOU6mgGY86nPStm9Gd53Xnf8PSxY8j118SOOoSfvbOI6PF2Co9ZC39OH6fY5Lqd2g72IZL9ArbRWU' and id_category='monographs_pdf' order by timestamp
Remember - If you order an online subscription, you will have full-text access to every Journal article since 2003 - Just log in.
Terms of Sale | Privacy Notice

Editorial Board

Editors:
Sonja Magnavita, Peter Breunig, Sam Nixon

Book Reviews Editor:
Jonathan R. Walz, USA

Editorial Advisory Board:
Graham Connah, Australia
Shadreck Chirikure, South Africa
A. Catherine D'Andrea, Canada
Manfred K.H. Eggert, Germany
Elena Garcea, Italy
Diane Gifford-Gonzalez, USA
Timothy Insoll, UK
Tom Huffman, South Africa
Eric Huysecom, Switzerland
David Killick, USA
Savino di Lernia, Italy
Alexandre Livingstone Smith, Belgium
Scott MacEachern, USA
David Mattingly, UK
Susan Keech McIntosh, USA
David W. Phillipson, UK
Gilbert Pwiti, Zimbabwe
Peter Robertshaw, USA
Robert Vernet, France
Lyn Wadley, South Africa

Copy Editors:
Nikolas Gestrich, UK
Gaby Franke, Germany
Annabelle Gallin, France
Richard Byer, Germany

Editorial Assistance:
Anna Rybar, Germany
Carlos Magnavita, Germany


info@african-archaeology.de

© Copyright 2002 - - Africa Magna Verlag, Frankfurt
Webmaster: Nubis Limited, CMS: content@web 2.0